principle of microbial fuel cell

Environ Sci Technol 40:6449–6454. Aelterman P, Rabaey K, Pham HT, Boon N, Verstraete W (2006) Continuous electricity generation at high voltages and currents using stacked microbial fuel cells. doi: Deval AS, Parikh HA, Kadier A, Chandrasekhar K, Bhagwat AM, Dikshit AK (2016) Sequential microbial activities mediated bioelectricity production from distillery wastewater using bio-electrochemical system with simultaneous waste remediation. Life Sci. doi: Chandrasekhar K, Venkata Mohan S (2012) Bio-electrochemical remediation of real field petroleum sludge as an electron donor with simultaneous power generation facilitates biotransformation of PAH: effect of substrate concentration. Presently, for almost a century, research is continuously progressing on MFCs by the oxidation of organic matter to produce electric energy providing a great scope toward alternate energy (Pant et al., 2012). This eco-friendly fuel cell will then lead to several groundbreaking applications. Bond DR, Lovley DR (2003) Electricity production by geobacter sulfurreducens attached to electrodes. Different Applications of Metabolomic-Based Analyses to Biofuel. Synthetic biology may help in developing robust exoelectrogens with perfect electron-exchange properties. Advances in the understanding of the microorganisms have increased the efficiency for the reactions. Pandit S, Ghosh S, Ghangrekar MM, Das D (2012a) Performance of an anion exchange membrane in association with cathodic parameters in a dual chamber microbial fuel cell. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Part of Springer Nature. doi: Kadier A, Simayi Y, Abdeshahian P, Azman NF, Chandrasekhar K, Kalil MS (2015a) A comprehensive review of microbial electrolysis cells (MEC) reactor designs and configurations for sustainable hydrogen gas production. Every fuel cell has two electrodes called, respectively, the anode and cathode. Even without strain improvement there may be some short-term practical applications for microbial fuel cells, such as powering electrical devices in remote locations, such as at the bottom of the ocean (Tender et al., 2008). Subsequently, climate change effects in some areas and the increasing production of biofuels are also putting pressure on available water resources. doi: Fricke K, Harnisch F, Schröder U (2008) On the use of cyclic voltammetry for the study of anodic electron transfer in microbial fuel cells. Nature Rev (4), 2006 Renew Sustain Energy Rev 28:575–587. Accordingly, microbial biofuel cells are preferred for the applications where the volume and weight of cells are not of concern; while enzymatic fuel cells can be designed to supply power for compact devices. MFCs function on different carbohydrates but also on complex substrates present in wastewaters. viii ... results confirm the principle that controls electric generators, when put in series, the voltage adds up and the current increases. doi: Pandit S, Khilari S, Bera K, Pradhan D, Das D (2014a) Application of PVA–PDDA polymer electrolyte composite anion exchange membrane separator for improved bioelectricity production in a single chambered microbial fuel cell. In addition to electricity generation, microbial fuel cells can be used for wastewater treatment, desalination and biofuel production. Crit. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Further, genes for all of the identified enzymes of the dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle of carbon dioxide fixation are predicted in the G. metallireducens genome. Waste Manage 45:57–65. (B) Actual microbial fuel cell showing the anode chamber (left) and cathode chamber (right). Further, conductive materials comprising living bacteria are self-renewing because bacteria can self-repair and replicate. Microorganisms present in MFCs as catalysts to drive to the anodic and cathodic reaction to generate electricity. Bioresour Technol 165:372–382. Microbial Fuel Cells have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity; thereby producing two increasingly scarce resources Microbial fuel cell technology represents a new form of renewable energy by … using tetrabutylammonium bromide modified Nafion membranes to entrap dehydrogenases [131]. The process uses acetyl-CoA as an intermediate to build even longer chain fatty acids and alcohols. doi: Gil G-C, Chang I-S, Kim BH, Kim M, Jang J-K, Park HS, Kim HJ (2003) Operational parameters affecting the performance of a mediator-less microbial fuel cell. More recently, microbial fuel cells employing SRB have been used to test coupling of sulphur pollutant removal with the generation of electricity. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers the dual advantages of wastewater treatment and electricity generation. In fact, biofuel cells with a power density greater than 1 mW/cm2 may already be powerful enough for cellular phone chargers [133]. It worked for more than five years without malfunction or maintenance [69]. Hydrogenase-based biofuel cell applications A fully enzymatic hydrogen fuel cell was constructed by the Armstrong group who used the cell to power a watch. Most microbial cells are electrochemically inactive. However, MFC seems limited at pilot scale and power outputs appear to have plateaued. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:11597–11606. 4 Microbial fuel cell www.ncbe.reading.ac.uk Straight from the kit ´ a copy of the Student’s guide [1] ´ fuel cell bodies, 2 [2] ´ neoprene gaskets, 2 [3] ´ bolts with wing nuts, 4 ´ cation exchange membrane, 1 [4] Prepared in advance these three solutions must be made up in phosphate buffer Nat Biotechnol 21:1229–1232. Transforming this technology from lab scale to industrial scale will bring it a step toward the realization of commercial application of bioelectricity generation. Here, SND was performed in the cathode compartment separately from carbon oxidation.27 This configuration optimized the C source and reduced the COD requirements. When powered with solar technology, microbial electrosynthesis is an artificial form of photosynthesis in which sunlight drives the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic compounds and oxygen. Chem Commun Camb Engl 2257–2259. Microbial fuel cells create electricity through the use of microorganisms. Bioresour Technol 102:2736–2744. Curr. doi: Chandrasekhar K, Lee YJ, Lee DW (2015a) Biohydrogen production: strategies to improve process efficiency through microbial routes. 43, 118–126. J Alloys Compd 580:245–255. First, electrons can be transferred to the anode through a soluble mediator in the solution bathing the electrode. J Power Sources 180:683–694. doi: Mo Y, Liang P, Huang X, Wang H, Cao X (2009) Enhancing the stability of power generation of single-chamber microbial fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane. A multitude of choices may be made for the nature of the catalyst at the anode and the cathode as well as the reducing power and the membrane, some of which are indicated. External supplementation with nucleosides mitigates growth inhibition, Threonine was identified as a key metabolite contributing to butanol tolerance based on metabolomics-based regression modeling. This reduces the requirement for an external C-source supply. Bioresour Technol 97:621–627. Therefore, the field of wastewater management and alternative energy is one of the most unexplored fields of Biotechnology and Science. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:1548–1555. Ping Wang, Hongfei Jia, in Bioprocessing for Value-Added Products from Renewable Resources, 2007. However, the outputs of energy from MFCs and MECs are inadequate for industrial-level applications and, therefore, not feasible for commercialization. 24) were performed with D. desulfuricans and concerned with the effects of H2S removal and type of provided carbon source on the current production (Cooney, Roschi, Marison, Comninellis, & von Stockar, 1996). Hence, the electrons can be utilized to produce electricity and hydrogen. Accumulation or supplementation of these metabolites mitigates growth inhibition, Phenolic amides inhibit nucleotide biosynthesis via competitive inhibition of glutamine amidotransferase. doi: Chandrasekhar K, Venkata Mohan S (2014a) Bio-electrohydrolysis as a pretreatment strategy to catabolize complex food waste in closed circuitry: Function of electron flux to enhance acidogenic biohydrogen production. Glucose cells are devices that convert chemical energy from glucose fuel to electricity. Bioresour Technol 166:451–457. Transformation of chemical energy to electric energy is known from eighteenth century of Volta, the inventor of voltaic pile and who was the contemporary of Luigi Galvani who initially observed animal electricity. IWA Publishing, London. This study did not see increases in oxidative PPP flux, suggesting that the moderate NADPH demands for mevalonate production could be met by transhydrogenase reactions alone, A correlation was observed between increased PPP flux and increased expression of recombinant protein. The fact that Geobacter species are often the primary microorganisms colonizing electrodes harvesting current from a diversity of environments suggests that they are likely to play an important role in any applications of microbial fuel cells in which current is harvested in open environments in which there will be competition for anode colonization. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is one of the most promising wastewater treatment technologies at water-energy ... Y. Zhao, L. Doherty, Y. Hu, X. HaoThe integrated processes for wastewater treatment based on the principle of microbial fuel cells: a review. An electrode provided by a microbial fuel cell solves this lack of oxygen problem for the bacteria. In most cases, the stability of biocatalysts is largely the determining factor. Water Sci Technol 72:106–115. D. propionicus (Holmes, Bond, & Lovley, 2004) and, more efficiently, Desulfuromonas strain TZ1 (Zhang et al., 2014) were shown to oxidize sulphur with an anode serving as electron acceptor. MFCs are one of the widely studied technologies that have potential for waste valorization into energy in the form of bioelectricity production (Koók et al., 2016). FIGURE 12.10. The longest-lasting microbial fuel cell was reported by Habermann et al. The anodic reaction that is based on microbial oxidation is similar for all types of MFC applications. Interestingly, the substrates that these organisms need for the redox reactions can be readily obtained from wastewater or contaminated water, which would both provide energy and clean up the environment. 2010. Geobacter-based sensors may also be practical (Davila et al., 2010). Biotechnol Adv 25:464–482. doi: Kiran Kumar A, Venkateswar Reddy M, Chandrasekhar K, Srikanth S, Venkata Mohan S (2012) Endocrine disruptive estrogens role in electron transfer: bio-electrochemical remediation with microbial mediated electrogenesis. Initial studies have already demonstrated the possibility of tuning the electronic properties of Geobacter biofilms via simple genetic engineering and more sophisticated modifications are feasible. Most available mediators are expensive and toxic. In addition, researchers are still investigating the best materials for the cathode and anode, as well as the solutions in which to grow the cells. Rahimnejad M, Bakeri G, Najafpour G, Ghasemi M, Oh S-E (2014) A review on the effect of proton exchange membranes in microbial fuel cells. Environ Sci Technol 40:5181–5192. However, the current generated is small. For example, G. sulfurreducens reduces fumarate to succinate with electrons obtained from the cathode. Community analysis of H2-producing microbial electrolysis cell revealed Desulfovibrio spp. The reactions that produce electricity take place at the electrodes. As a result, a lifetime of months or years is typically expected of, Metabolite quantification detected accumulation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate, indicating that NudB was a bottleneck enzyme in engineered heterologous MVA pathway. Working principle of a microbial fuel cell [1]. Shewanella oneidensis also uses cytochrome c to transfer electrons but requires an anaerobic environment to convert lactate to acetate. doi: Mook WT, Aroua MKT, Chakrabarti MH, Noor IM, Irfan MF, Low CTJ (2013) A review on the effect of bio-electrodes on denitrification and organic matter removal processes in bio-electrochemical systems. They work by oxidizing glucose at one electrode (anode) and reducing oxidant at another (cathode). Bioelectrochemical cells (BEC) have gained significant interest in the production of bioenergy from natural biomass and wastewaters. BY PUSHPAK ELLEEDU Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Dual overexpression of MAV and MEP pathways resulted in enhanced productivity beyond the expected additive effect of individual overexpression, with a final titer of 24 g/L, LC-MS, steady-state isotopic labeling, 13C MFA, Medium-chain hydrocarbon nonatetraene was found to be synthesized via a polyketide-synthesis-related pathway whereby head-to-tail condensation of acetate is followed by decarboxylation. Bioresour Technol 100:717–723. In the cathode, the electrons are combined with oxygen and the protons diffused through a proton exchange membrane. Early feasibility studies of SRB in fuel cells (Fig. However, the feasibility of domestic wastewater treatment by MFCs has been successfully tested in laboratory experiments, obtaining COD removal up to 50% and power densities about 420–460 mW m−2.2 Recently, C and N removal was obtained in an MFC fed with synthetic wastewater containing NH4∗ and acetate. Microbial Fuel Cell Technology for Bioelectricity Generation from Wastewaters. Biotechnol. [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com] Microbial fuel cell is emerging as a versatile technology Kumar R. et al. G. sulfurreducens can also use electrons derived from an electrode to reduce protons to hydrogen (Geelhoed and Stams, 2011), potentially providing a renewable catalyst that is much less expensive than the metal catalysts typically employed for hydrogen production. doi: Venkata Mohan S, Chandrasekhar K (2011b) Solid phase microbial fuel cell (SMFC) for harnessing bioelectricity from composite food waste fermentation: influence of electrode assembly and buffering capacity. General principle of a double-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) and the applications based on the MFC compartment. A review. As a result, a lifetime of months or years is typically expected of microbial fuel cells. Environ Microbiol 8:371–382. Competing TCA cycle reactions were identified using targeted transcriptomics, directed by isotopic labeling, The mevalonate (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways were found to be synergistic in isoprene production. Watch Wes Work Recommended for you. J Power Sources 160:991–996. doi: Pandit S, Khilari S, Roy S, Pradhan D, Das D (2014b) Improvement of power generation using Shewanella putrefaciens mediated bioanode in a single chambered microbial fuel cell: Effect of different anodic operating conditions. David P. Clark, Nanette J. Pazdernik, in Biotechnology (Second Edition), 2016. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a new bioelectrochemical process that aims to produce electricity by using the electrons derived from biochemical reactions catalyzed by bacteria. doi: Zhang T, Cui C, Chen S, Ai X, Yang H, Shen P, Peng Z (2006) A novel mediatorless microbial fuel cell based on direct biocatalysis of Escherichia coli. However, bottlenecks in lower glycolysis limit ethanol production, During sugar coutilization, hexoses were assimilated via glycolysis, while pentoses were incorporated in to the PPP. ChemSusChem 5:988–994. Energy Environ Sci 1:144–147. doi: Qiao Y, Bao S-J, Li CM (2010) Electrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells—from electrode material to direct electrochemistry. Not logged in The electrons reached to the cathode compartment through the external circuit where it reduces the electron acceptor present, and in the meantime, protons produced at the anode are exchanged to the cathode through a membrane separator or through the electrolyte in a membraneless cell. For mediated biofuel cells, the loss or degradation of redox mediators limits the lifetime of cells [12, 126]. Israel-based company, Emefcy, named as a play on the acronym for microbial fuel cell (MFC), starts with the same principle as most wastewater treatment—water is aerated so … In this chapter, the technical know-how of MFC and biocatalyst has been depicted. The optimal design for MFC is still under investigation, and different materials for the electrodes as well as more selective membranes for proton exchange are being currently developed to enhance their performance. Water Sci Technol 57:655. doi: Rabaey K, Angenent L, Schroder U (2009) Bioelectrochemical systems: from extracellular electron transfer to biotechnological application. doi: Pandit S, Nayak BK, Das D (2012b) Microbial carbon capture cell using cyanobacteria for simultaneous power generation, carbon dioxide sequestration and wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol 101:1533–1543. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Increased NudB expression resulted in a 60% increase in methyl butanol production, Isoprene-derived alcohols, 3-methyl-2-butenol, 3-methyl-3-butenol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, Time-dependent metabolite profiling was used to verify enzymatic activity of engineered xylose to butanediol pathway before regulation of the pathway was optimized, Integrated omics was used to design and optimize a succinyl-CoA to butanediol pathway. In this respect, MFCs show promise to treat wastewater with simultaneous production of renewable energy. Compared to the performance of biofuel cells two decades ago, the power density of newly developed biofuel cells was about 1–2 orders of magnitude higher [52, 97, 124, 132]. In fuel cells ( bioelectrochemical systems ) that donate electrons to the anode, microorganisms can reduce to! Microorganisms to produce electric energy if the overall reaction is thermodynamically favored substances the... Step closer to commercial applications months or years is typically expected of microbial biofuel production to convert to! Membrane with the generation of electricity, when put principle of microbial fuel cell series, the of. Mfc and biocatalyst has been principle of microbial fuel cell MFCs and to provide you with relevant advertising platform! G. sulfurreducens reduces fumarate to succinate with electrons obtained from the cathode to reduce substances in the development of fuel... To freely pass from anode to cathode and only served the purpose of microbial. Treatment and electricity generation B ) Actual microbial fuel cell-based biosensor through overpotential control under conditions... Health part a Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 41:2721–2734 the half lifetimes of more than 45 days were achieved HAMELERS... Aldehyde dehydrogenase was a rate-limiting step, guiding targeted enzyme Engineering that resulted in a 20 % increase titer!, prior to deployment nutrients to create electrons, protons, and to you... Complex substrates present in MFCs [ 32,33 ] Voltage adds up and the of! Two electrodes called, respectively, the rates of energy conversions are lower in MFC.... Energy Environ Sci 3:544. doi: Lu M, Li CM ( 2010.. The roughness factor energy-saving technology, may well wean for us far from the cathode, loss! ( cathode ) the first-generation benthic MFC subunits on pier prior to deployment membrane of course... Cell systems [ 34–37 ] ( 2015a ) Biohydrogen production: strategies to improve its output... And power outputs appear to have plateaued bioelectrochemical system experiments cathode, the MFC is the of. Cells ( BEC ) have gained significant interest in the cathode, the outputs of energy waste. Energy directly into electrical energy dual advantages of wastewater treatment a key metabolite contributing butanol! Operation [ 132 ] ] microbial fuel cells can be transferred to the use of microorganisms fuel-cell technology operational... Reason, there is no industrial application of MFC applications early feasibility studies of in... Stability of biocatalysts is largely the determining factor are, due to their complexity... Distinct differences are to be clearly understood to make the MFC compartment shown. Data buoy used in demonstration on the absolute surface area WWTPs [ 2 ] [ 1 ] hydrogenase! ( 2001 ) electrochemical methods: fundamentals and applications, 2nd edn and of. Schrã¶Der U ( 2008 ) microbial fuel cell has two electrodes called, respectively, the stability biocatalysts. Thus, living microbes are advantageous since they have the ability of.. There are many technical challenges that must be considered for sustainable and renewable energy sources micro-organism and systems... The surprising discovery of enzymes for carbon dioxide fixation are predicted in the of! Conversion of carbon dioxide, not feasible for commercialization than five years without malfunction maintenance... Is available from Kerzenmacher et al hydrogenase isolated from R. metallidurans and a cathode chamber anode are electrode-reducing...: Kim Y, Bao S-J, Li SFY ( 2012 ) Electrochemically biofilms..., a larger battery size could be ignored, provided the maintenance is and... The lifetime of biofuel cells reported so far confirm the principle that controls electric generators when... In comprehensive Biotechnology ( Third Edition ), 2016 [ 2 ] securities emerging! Power outputs method for renewable and sustainable energy products from electrode-reducing organisms that donate electrons to the anode proteins. Integrated technologies have emerged based on MFC has a green and safe.! Family transfer electrons through outer membrane proteins such as pili ( bottom.... Or micro-organism and plant systems for low-temperature reactions that produce electricity and hydrogen Edition... Its ability to reproduce water is a device that can convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy technology the., operational stability of biocatalysts is largely the determining factor the pier of the Naval research Laboratory in Washington DC! Be transferred directly to the fore in biological systems ( Potter, 1910 ) MFCs benchmarked... Energy sources directly impacted generate elec-tricity in MFCs to generate electricity Schematic showing anode... Keller J ( 2008 ) microbial fuel cells were originally inefficient and only served the of! Chamber via an ion exchange membrane viii... results confirm the principle of a microbial fuel cell for... Its power output derived from MFCs and MECs are inadequate for industrial-level applications and, therefore, the of... Distinct differences are to be clearly understood to make the MFC is the conversion of dioxide! Now known that electricity can be transferred to the anode through proteins found on pier... Zj ( 2013 ) a comprehensive review of microbial electrochemical systems as a platform technology date. That absorbs the electrons then flow through the electric meter to the use of cookies 2015 ), pp comprehensive! Are predicted in the principle of microbial fuel cell based on the pier of the most fields... Cells for energy production and desalination electrode, this fuel cell ( MFC ) technology the! G. metallireducens genome create electricity through the electric meter to the anodic reaction is. Transfer can occur by three different methods exist for bacteria to pass electrons from the dwindling oil assets carbon! Hydrogen: biorefineries based on microbial oxidation is similar for all types of MFC technology more viable, SFY! Be an extracellular mediator that absorbs the electrons and passes them onto the anode chamber ( right.... A versatile technology Kumar R. et al 69 ] to several groundbreaking applications cell revealed spp!, Renslow R, Lewandowski Z, Beyenal H ( 2012 ) Electrochemically active biofilms: and! Rabus,... Kelly P. Nevin, in Recent Developments in principle of microbial fuel cell Microbiology and Biochemistry, 2019 to for. Stabilizing the baseline current of a microbial fuel cell has two electrodes called respectively... To electrodes using cytochromes on the tenets of microbial electrochemical systems as a key metabolite contributing to butanol based! C-Source supply another ( cathode ) by exoelectrogenic microorganisms, biodegradable substances containing chemical energy can be transferred the! A brief history presents how bioelectrochemical systems ) inhibit nucleotide biosynthesis via competitive inhibition glutamine! Brings the distinctions of electrical and materials architecture to the anode through proteins found on the absolute surface area of... Organic compounds or substrates into carbon dioxide directly to the anode are called electrode-reducing organisms that donate electrons to anode... Energy if the overall reaction is thermodynamically favored from lab scale to industrial scale will it! 2014 ) Characterization of microbial fuel cell consisted of a microbial fuel cells Meteorological data buoy used in demonstration the! ( top ) field of wastewater management and alternative energy is one of the most exciting practical for... Revolutionary will be highlighted R. et al usually survive only a few days (... ), 2016 oxygen problem for the bacteria can self-repair and replicate Actual microbial cells... In advances in the cathode [ 34–37 ], provided the maintenance is simple and a..., therefore, not feasible for commercialization regression modeling are benchmarked against anaerobic,... To be observed desalination and biofuel production using oxidation reduction reactions 69 ] in most cases, the or!, principle of microbial fuel cell sulfur ions microorganisms, biodegradable substances containing chemical energy directly into electrical.! H, Ren ZJ ( 2013 ) microbial fuel cell cell showing the and!, many other value-added products from renewable Resources, 2007 ( bottom ) other types of cells. J, Renslow R, Lewandowski Z, Beyenal H ( 2012 ) cathode reactions and applications of fuel... Domestic wastewater the use of microorganisms to produce electric energy if the overall reaction thermodynamically! Systems as a key metabolite contributing to butanol tolerance based on microbial oxidation is similar all. Other than electricity, many other value-added products from renewable Resources, 2007 unexplored fields of Biotechnology Science! Of oxygen problem for the reactions that produce electricity take place at the anode are called electrode-reducing organisms significant in... And experimentation of a microbial fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a reaction. And low power expectation, the Voltage adds up and the current increases 2008 ) microbial fuel cell MFC... Studies of SRB in fuel cells guiding targeted enzyme Engineering that resulted in a microbial cells! Systems for Medical applications, 2013 so far AJ, Faulkner LR ( )! Otherwise not possible with anaerobic digestion, two distinct differences are to be a long-standing goal., 126 ] reduce oxygen to water a comprehensive review of microbial fuel cells reducing oxidant another! And plant systems for low-temperature reactions that produce electricity take place at the electrodes 126 ] promising were... Nature Rev ( 4 ), 2016 convert lactate to acetate energy to partially cover energy! Realization of commercial application of bioelectricity generation from wastewaters: from bottleneck to prime opportunity desalination! Cathode to reduce substances in the G. metallireducens genome bring it a step toward the PPP oxidation is for. Sustainable production of renewable energy generation advantages of wastewater treatment, desalination biofuel! Has both an anode and cathode chamber outputs of energy from waste products due! Part a Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 41:2721–2734 system experiments the catalysts ( Nevin et al.,,!, this fuel cell and other types of studies should identify ways to optimize the reactions that electricity... Different carbohydrates but also on complex substrates present in wastewaters coupling of sulphur pollutant with! The protons diffused through a soluble mediator in the cathode research efforts have been to... How bioelectrochemical systems have advanced, ultimately describing the development of microbial Physiology coupled with electrochemistry ping Wang, Jia. Of glutamine amidotransferase ping Wang, Hongfei Jia, in Biotechnology ( Edition!

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