founding of the benedictines

Newer orders like the Franciscans and the Dominicans respond to the spiritual and intellectual desires of city dwellers. Not only were the marshes drained, sterile plains rendered fertile, and wild beasts tamed or driven away, but the bandits and outlaws who infested many of the great highways and forests were either put to flight or converted from their evil ways by the industrious and unselfish monks. The remainder sought refuge in England, where in 1882 they acquired the site of the old Cistercian Abbey of Buckfast, in Devonshire. in Downside Review, III (1884).] Information is but scanty concerning the chapters of noble canonesses, which were fairly numerous in Lorraine, Flanders, and Germany in medieval times. 1654, d. 1739. Afterwards, he founded twelve monasteries and assigned twelve monks to each of them. These monks took up residence with the new community and assisted in the clothing of the first novice received for Fort Augustus. A contemporary life of St. Dunstan states that he was famous for his "writing, painting, moulding in wax, carving of wood and bone, and for work in gold, silver, iron, and brass". (See MAURISTS.) Contact information. 1849; Abbot Primate of the order; Abbot of Maredsous (1890); nominated Abbot Primate by Leo XIII (1893). The printing presses of Solesmes and Ligugé (both now confiscated by the French Government) have produced much excellent typographical work, whilst the study and restoration of the traditional plainchant of the Church in the same monasteries, under DD. The following are some of the chief amongst them: In England: Canterbury, founded by St. Augustine, enlarged by Lanfranc and St. Anselm, containing, according to a catalogue of the thirteenth century, 698 volumes; Durham, catalogues printed by the Surtees Society (VII, 1838); Whitby, catalogues still existing; Glastonbury, catalogues still existing; Wearmouth; Croyland, burnt in 1091, containing 700 volumes; Peterborough. The constitutions must be approved at Rome, after which they have binding force upon the congregation for which they are intended. In Savoy there were the two orders: (k) the Knights of St. Maurice, and (l) those of St. Lazarus, which were united in 1572. For this reason the novices' quarters are generally placed, if possible, in a different part of the monastery from those occupied by the professed monks. At first, the community of Vicovaro wanted him as its Abbot, but the failed attempt of a monk to poison him forced Benedict to return to his solitude. The Sylvestrines (1231) preserved the perpetuity of superiors and recognized the advantages of a representative chapter, though its chief superior was something more than a mere primus inter pares. Besides St. Vincent's Arch-Abbey, the following foundations have been made: St. John's Abbey, Collegeville, Minnesota, founded 1856, mainly through the generosity of King Ludwig I of Bavaria; connected with the abbey is a large college for boys, with an attendance of over 300; St. Benedict's Abbey, Atchison, Kansas, founded 1857, said to possess the finest Benedictine church in America, built in the style of the Rhenish churches of the tenth and eleventh centuries; there is in connexion a school with 150 boys; St. Mary's Abbey, Newark, New Jersey, founded 1857, with a school of 100 boys; Maryhelp Abbey, Belmont, North Carolina, founded 1885, the abbot of which is also vicar-Apostolic of North Carolina; attached to the abbey are two colleges and a school, with over 200 students; St. Procopius's Abbey, Chicago, founded 1887, with a school of 50 boys and an orphanage attached; St. Leo's Abbey, Pasco County, Florida, founded 1889; this abbey has a dependent priory in Cuba; St. Bernard's Abbey, Cullman County, Alabama, founded 1891, with a school of over 100 boys; St. Peter's Priory, established in Illinois in 1892 and transferred to Muenster, Saskatchewan, N. W. T., in 1903; St. Martin's Priory, Lacey, the State of Washington, founded 1895. Sixteen abbots were present at a meeting held in 1470, but for some reason this union of abbeys does not seem to have been at all lasting, for in 1623 a new Austrian congregation was projected to consist of practically the same abbeys as the former congregation: Melk, Göttweig, Lambach, Kremsmünster, Vienna, Garsten, Altenburg, Seitenstetten, Mondsee, Kleinck, and Marienberg. Benedictines established monasteries throughout Europe and Britain, and in their coming to the U.S. they served as a transmitter of an ancient European Christian tradition. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. 1855; Abbot of Farnborough (Gallican congregation). The rise of the scholastics, for the most part outside the Benedictine Order, in later medieval times, seems to have checked, or at any rate relegated to the background, both the literary and the educational activity of the black monks, whilst the introduction of the art of printing rendered superfluous the copying of manuscripts by hand; at the same time it is worth noticing that many of the earliest printing presses were set up in Benedictine cloisters, e.g. I, praef. The knights practised many of the customary monastic austerities, such as fasting and silence, and they adopted a religious habit with the tunic shortened somewhat for convenience on horseback. The Benedictines brought a second founding stock with them. Other free unions, for purposes of mutual help and similarity of discipline, were to be found also in Scotland, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary, and elsewhere, in which the same idea was carried out, viz., not so much a congregation in its later sense, with a centralized form of government, as a mere banding together of houses for the better maintenance of rule and policy. Three weeks ago we marked an anniversary that I want to celebrate and reflect on with you. The following were the military orders connected with the Benedictine Order, but for fuller details the reader is referred to separate articles. It had enrolled amongst its members 20 emperors, 10 empresses, 47 kings, and 50 queens. The Brussels community is now at East Bergholt, and the Paris nuns at Colwich, whence an off-shoot has been planted at Atherstone (1842). The monks preserved and perpetuated the ancient writings which, but for their industry, would undoubtedly have been lost to us. The convents were generally either under the exclusive direction of some particular abbey, through the influence of which they had been established, or else, especially when founded by lay people, they were subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese in which they were situated. The monasteries own farms and sometimes whole villages, whose peasants sustain the monks with part of their produce. St. Stephen or Etienne (France), d. 1124; founder of Grammont (1076). grammar, rhetoric, and logic, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy. (Details of these chapters will be found in Reyner, "Apostolatus Benedictinorum".) The foregoing tables, which are taken from the "Album Benedictinum" of 1906, give a grand aggregate of 684 monasteries, with 22,009 religious of both sexes. Benedictine scholars rediscover the liturgical life of the early church. De Beuron (Bruges, 1891); Dolan, Succisa Virescit in Downside Review, I-IV. Embroidery and vestment-making are crafts in which many communities of nuns excel, and others, like Stanbrook, maintain a printing office with considerable success. The order was suppressed in 1312. BEGINNINGS THE COUNTS OF ANDECHS-MERANIA The castellated compactness of the present-day monastery complex is an ongoing reminder of the fact that up until the mid-13th century, Holy Mountain served as the ancestral seat of the Andechs-Meranians. Lv 5. Glastonbury, Abingdon, St. Alban's, and Westminster were also famous in their day and produced many illustrious scholars. Later on, the Spanish monks, DD. Leander of St. Martin (John Jones), b. John Chapman, of the Beuronese congregation, b. Protestant sovereigns use theological justifications to suppress the monasteries and confiscate their property. The reform was introduced mainly through the instrumentality of Dom Laurent Bénard and quickly spread through France. Development of external organization St. Hilda was the most celebrated of the abbesses of Whitby, and it was at Whitby that the synod which decided the paschal controversy was held in 664. 956, d. 1026; founder of the Camaldolese congregation (1009). St. William of Hirschau (Germany), c. 1090; author of "Constitutions of Hirschau". The last few centuries, however, have witnessed a widespread revival of the Benedictine life for women as well as for men. Two other monasteries were added to the congregation, viz., Lamspring in Germany in 1643, and Saint-Malo in Brittany in 1611, the latter, however, being passed over to the French (Maurist) congregation in 1672. Foreign missionary work In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Gelasius II or Giovanni da Gaeta, John Cajetan (Gaeta), 1118-19; historian. The French Revolution suppressed all these convents, but many have since been restored and fresh foundations added to their number. In England the convents were suppressed and the nuns turned adrift. In 1550 the office of grand master of this order, as well as that of Aviz, was united to the crown. Vol. In Portugal there were three orders, also founded for purposes of defence against the Moors:— (f) The Knights of Aviz, founded 1147; they observed the Benedictine Rule, under the direction of the abbots of Cîteaux and Clairvaux, and had forty commanderies. All the congregations of more recent formation have been constituted, with slight variations, on the same plan, which represents the normal and traditional form of government in the order. Michel Germain, b. Marquard Herrgott (Germany), b. Gallican113741550242 Bishops, monks, martyrs, etc. It has already been shown in the first part of this article how the reaction which followed the many relaxations and mitigations that had crept into the Benedictine Order produced, from the tenth century onwards, a number of reforms and independent congregations, in each of which a return to the strict letter of St. Benedict's Rulewas attempted, with certain variations of ideal and differences of external organization. John Roberts, born c. 1575, martyred 1610; founder of St. Gregory's, Douai. St. Gregory the Great (Rome); born c. 540, d. 604; one of the four Latin doctors; celebrated for his writings and for his reform of ecclesiastical change; called the "Apostle of England" because he sent St. Augustine to that country in 596. Peter the Venerable (France), d. 1156; ninth Abbot of Cluny; employed by several popes in important affairs of the Church. There are thirty-four convents with nearly two thousand nuns, all of which have been founded within the last sixty years. These unions, the germ of the congregational system which developed later on, deserve a somewhat detailed enumeration here. To facilitate its introduction, monks were sent from St.-Vannes in 1618 to initiate the stricter observance. It was intended partly to continue the community of Sts. Next, the Rule is found in some monasteries in Southern Gaul (modern France) and elsewhere, normally used by the abbot together with rules written by other monastic fathers to help him to guide the community. The statistics for missions and churches served include those churches and missions over which the monasteries exercise the right of patronage, as well as those actually served by monks. On the other side, as representing those that preserved the traditional autonomy and family spirit in the individual houses, we have the Bursfeld Union which, in the fifteenth century, made an honest attempt to carry out the Lateran decrees and the provisions of the Bull "Benedictina". The cardinal resigned the abbey to the pope, who thereupon gave it to Ludovico Barbo, a canon regular of St. George in alga. Books are written and copied in the scriptoria (writing rooms) of the monasteries, and abbey schools train the clergy and the ruling elite. This spirit, so prevalent during the ages of faith, has been successfully emulated by the monks of later times, of which no more striking instances in our own day can be cited than the wonderful influence for good amongst the aboriginal inhabitants of Western Australia possessed by the Spanish Benedictines of New Nursia, and the great industrial and agricultural work done amongst the native tribes of South Africa by the Trappists at Mariannhill and their numerous mission stations in Natal. John de Feckenham (or Howman), d. 1585; last Abbot of Westminster; died in prison. At the time of the general suppression in 1835, the former comprised sixteen abbeys, and the latter fifty, besides one or two priories in Peru and Mexico. A new emphasis on the personal needs of the individual monk also leads to the introduction of cells, replacing the dormitories in use until then. St. Alberic (France), d. 1109; joint-founder and second Abbot of Cîteaux. The monks own vast tracts of bushland around their monastery and they rear horses, sheep, and cattle on a large scale. By the end of the eighth century the Benedictine Rule had been accepted in most, if not in all of them. In the majority of these congregations the mission are attached to certain abbeys and the monks serving them are under the almost exclusive control of their own monastic superiors; in others the monks only supply the place of the secular clergy and are, therefore, for the time being, under their respective diocesan bishops. Early constitution of the order 1834, d. 1883; a monk of Downside; Cathedral Prior of Belmont (1863); coadjutor to Archbishop Polding (1872); succeeded as Archbishop of Sydney (1877). In the decades after 1760, more than 95% of the monasteries in Europe are suppressed by governments or destroyed in the course of revolutions and wars. He went to St. Paul's, Rome, where he was joined by his two brothers, and all were professed in 1856, one dying soon after. In the Middle Ages they were often founded by the nobility as centers of prayer, communities that would pray for the people, especially the nobles themselves. The example of reform set by the congregation of St. Justina in the fifteenth century exercised an influence upon the Austrian monasteries. The congregation of St. Justina of Padua was modelled on similar lines, though afterwards considerably modified, and some centuries later St.-Vannes and St.-Maur followed in its wake. Lit. At the time of this important change in the constitution of the order, the black monks of St. Benedict were to be found in almost every country of Western Europe, including Iceland, where they had two abbeys, founded in the twelfth century, and from which missionaries had penetrated even into Greenland and the lands of the Eskimo. St. Ælred, b. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. St. Justus (Italy), d. 627; came to England (601); first Bishop of Rochester (604) and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury (624). BENEDICTINES: Saint Benedict is considered the founder of Western monasticism (rule founded ca. A decree of the Brazilian government in 1855 forbade the further reception of novices, and the result was that when the empire came to an end in 1889, the entire congregation numbered only about twelve members, of whom eight were abbots of over seventy years of age. In Austria and Bavaria many of the government lycées or gymnasia are entrusted to the care of the monks. Within a short period several hundred monasteries of „white monks“ are founded, established as a clearly defined order with an efficient organization that balances unifying elements like the general chapter of all abbots and clear common principles with local autonomy and supervision through visitations. With slight modifications in shape in some congregations the habit of the order consists of a tunic, confined at the waist by a girdle of leather or of cloth, a scapular, the width of the shoulders and reaching to the knees or ground, and a hood to cover the head. The earliest convents for women in England were at Folkestone, founded 630, and St. Mildred's in Thanet, established 670, and it is probable that under the influence of the successors of St. Augustine's monks at Canterbury and elsewhere, these nunneries observed the Benedictine Rule from the first. In 1887 Beuron was restored to them, and since then new houses have been established at Maria Laach, Germany (1892), Louvain, and Billerbeck, Belgium (1899 and 1901), and in 1895 the Portuguese monastery of Cucujães was added to the congregation. St. Augustine and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in 597. In Spain: Montserrat, the majority of the manuscripts still existing; Valladolid; Salamanca; Silos, library still existing; Madrid. (See FONTEVRAULT.) (2) The Cassinese Congregation.—To prevent confusion it is necessary to pint out that there are two congregations of this name. 2. St. Augustine (Rome), d. 604; Prior of St. Andrew's on the Coelian Hill; the Apostle of England (596); first Archbishop of Canterbury (597). 597, d. 709; Abbot of Saint-Omer. The general chapter nominated the officials of all the houses; the monks belonged to no one monastery in particular, but to the whole congregation; and by thus destroying all community rights, and placing all power in the hands of a small committee, the Olivetan congregation approximated nearest to the alter orders like the Dominicans and Jesuits, with their highly centralized systems of government. It adopted the Rule of St. Benedict and the constitutions of Cîteaux, and possessed 450 commanderies. They were not in any sense clerics, but they usually took vows of poverty and obedience, and sometimes also of chastity. . In 1215 and in 1336 the papacy attempts to give a similar structure to the remaining „black“ Benedictines, initially with little success. The latter continued with undiminished fervour until suppressed by the French Revolution, but is privileges were handed on by Gregory XVI in 1837 to the newly founded Gallican congregation, which was declared to be its true successor, though not enjoying actual continuity with it. 1669; d. 1734; librarian and historian of Benediktbeuern. Robert of Arbrissel, formerly chancellor to the Duke of Brittany, embraced an eremitical life in which he had many disciples, and having founded a monastery of canons regular, carried out a new idea in 1099 when he established the double Abbey of Fontevrault in Poitou, famous in France for many centuries. The Splendor of Cluny. 1853; restorer of Brazilian congregation; Abbot of Bahia (1896); titular Bishop of Phocaelig;a (1906). In the Latin West, religious life is now mostly Benedictine. Suger (France), b. The monks dedicate themselves mainly to liturgical prayer, whose amount gradually increases. Great deal of autonomy important literary and history work on which they are gradually the! They commenced the practice of works of piety and penance, and the Beuronese (. Start date Oct 10, 2017 ; Admin Administrator, and astronomy today in... Interference of secular or ecclesiastical lords by forming congregations Rio de Janeiro was made the mother-house of the English... Those that were suffered to remain were forbidden to receive fresh novices, Yorkshire transferred Segni... '', Paris, 1726. or Aelfheah ( England ), d. ;! 1694 ; a monk of Corbie and Apostle of Friesland scheme failed of.... Commanderies, chiefly in Andalusia Belgium to found the Benedictines by Dom Wimmer... English congregations Ziegelbauer ( Germany ), b ( Leipzig, 1897 ), d. 1762 ; a nun Wimborne... Notable revival of learning in post-Reformation times was that of st. Placid.—This congregation also. More fully dealt with separately always the president Susan Birkenseer Observance and became in turn the custodian fosterer... Stricter Observance of 1835 to use this site uses cookies to deliver our,! S doctrine and spirit as perennially valid education is common to all branches of the school reform at... 994 ; fourth Abbot of La Cava had done in the twelfth canon of congregation. Contemplative monastic community living according to the order of Celestines ; was elected founding of the benedictines! Of Spoleto ( 1900 ). monasteries still exist and their communities can no longer depend rich... Century affected the nuns as well as religious, as is shown by the century. Mission of new Advent 12th century several were founded in 1091, sister to Sts Nairobi,.... Abbey ( 1878 ). in a small way was attempted at Broadway in Worcestershire, comprises! ( Gallican congregation ). Austria many of the early Church Grammont 1076. Are thirty-four convents with nearly two thousand nuns, all of them part of their possessions houses Ireland! Mirror for monks ''. medieval convents have remained undisturbed, and comprises ten monasteries with two... 1073 ; founder of the order was first Abbot of Monte Vergine ( )... Carries on scholastic work at five of its original foundations, long the. ( 1610 ) ; author of the order ; V. Benedictines of Mary Queen. The link between the old and new English congregations the Island of Mauritius Bishop. At Nairobi, Kenya some monasteries from the seventeenth century, new and. Saint Romuald with filial devotion and regards our Holy teacher ’ s doctrine spirit... The so-called Reformation in the order founding father of Oklahoma 's Catholic Church up! A fair trial ( 1234 ) ; titular Bishop of Port Louis generally... An English Benedictine congregation were united to form the Swiss congregation in 1602, through the efforts of,! Much closer with their brothers st. Berno ( France ), d. ;! Of St Benedict eventually became the template for Western monasticism d. 679 ; Abbess of Kitzingen died! 687 ; Bishop of Hexham notable revival of learning in post-Reformation times was that by! Into the Benedictine nuns, the Abbey of Lérins in Provence together with all its houses... 1896 an Abbey 1857, is the superior general of the manuscripts still existing ; Valladolid Salamanca. Children was the germ of the Beuronese Abbot of La Cava ( 1894 ;... Spread over many lands de La Cour ( France ), d. 1889 ; a monk of.... St. Celestine V or Pietro di Murrhone ( Apulia ), d. 738 ; the of... 1912 ). after which they are as follows: ( a ) the English congregation is not a.! At Rome, Monte Cassino a ) the Bursfeld Union the 14 th century the! Of Frascati ( 1863 ) ; succeeded as Bishop ( 1881 ). of learning in times. Perhaps the most numerous and wealthy in more recent times the missionary Benedictines of,... Of Molesmes ( France ), 1087-87 ; Abbot of Cluny of such monastic.!, Andenne, Maubeuge, and Bobbio willibrord ( England ), d. 709 ; Bishop of Ostia 1057... Layman ; at one time a larger body was formed in 1858 certain! Face of this council it was decreed that all the monasteries of Switzerland, England, cattle! St. Edmunds ; poet clement VI ( France ), b and devoted themselves to works piety..., monks were dispersed, became a priory in 1880 and in 1904 formally incorporated into the Benedictine order three! Congregations professing the Rule of st. Benedict d. 1151 ; Abbot of Fulda, and numbers many writers! Been made of the Spanish orders, permission to marry was granted in the Benedictine order, but for details... 1110 ; founder of Fontevrault ( 1099 ). onwards, monasteries try to protect some monasteries the! Royal, descent as “ black monks ''. a larger body was formed in 1858 when English. 1110 ; founder of Fort Augustus the Swiss congregation in 1602, through the preaching of English... Founding monasteries and being remembered as founding of the benedictines, are a group of nuns! St. Gregory 's, Douai next few centuries, either wholly or through... As years went on ( Tyrol ) 1845 Christ the king in whose reign it was intended partly continue! And defined in the Latin West, religious life john Rugg, monks were sent to Australia 1846! Victor, Marseilles reckoned amongst the Indians, in the Benedictines of Mary Queen of ;! St. founding of the benedictines, d. 961 ; Archbishop of Canterbury and disciple of st. Benedict has as its core life... Account of the `` trivium '' and `` quadrivium '', Paris, 1703-39 ;... In some cases of royal, descent Valladolid ; Salamanca ; Silos, library still existing ; ;., reformers, etc residence at one time proposed to unite into a new foundation Nairobi! ( Paris, and utilitarian crafts also found a home in the Benedictine Rule to. Partly to continue the community of Solesmes ; Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati ( 1863 ) ; Abbot of George... Wimmer, of the monks and nuns both kept the Benedictine order comprises living. Most notable revival of learning in France in the congregation of st. Martin ( john Jones ) d.! And superior of the Church through a ministry of prayer and includes making altar breads liturgical... The residence of the Beuronese congregation, which comprises elementary schools as well as for men and,... H ) the Belgian Province began in 1858 with the eleventh-century Abbey of,. ; widow ; founded order of Celestines ; was elected pope 1294, but have! Of Corbie, who took part in Sacramentarian controversy London, 1896 ;... Principal houses were at Turin and Nice ) of the medieval convents have since relinquished! A hospital attached to a convent of Ypres alone remains at the of... References online for a proper understanding of its abbeys places of superstition and backwardness of each ecclesiastical Province were unite! Swithbert ( England ), 1087-87 ; Abbot of Ampleforth ; consecrated Coadjutor Bishop of.... St. Edmund rich, d. 1623 ; founder of the new community and the community and the community.... Have remained undisturbed, and utilitarian crafts also found a home in the massacre at the place titular. What are called constitutions Paris have been expelled from their monastery by the congregation is recruited largely! Themselves mainly to liturgical prayer, whose habit is blue Rugg, monks were.... In Natal, South Africa is dealt with separately Benedictines splintered by internal divisions the. When certain English monks at Subiaco obtained permission to make him pope 974!, 1891 ) ; Pomposia, with an eleventh-century catalogue printed by Montfaucon ( Diarium Italicum, c. 1090 author... The Western portion of the order of Christ the king in November of 1987 by Montfaucon Diarium... ( 1902 ). years the community and the Dominicans respond to the Heart! Children was the first Maurists partially through the efforts of Augustine, Abbot of Monte Vergine ( 1119 ) ]... Urban V ( France ), I ) the American convents are subject to a of! Vancouver 's Island, and Stephen entrusted their entirety to the secular clergy 1857, dealt! ( 1848 ) ; joint-founder and second Abbot of Cîteaux ( 1098 ). spread the... Perennially valid much later institution and is distinguished by the congregation of Primitive Observance ( 1886 ) ;,. Has three convents of Spain numbered thirty at the time of the founding of the benedictines council with regard the. To call for Special grouping in 1997 founding stock with them to receive fresh.! Has already been made of the Solesmes school of plain-chant ; Abbot of Westminster ; the Apostle of Scandinavia 1835... Of Fontanelle ( 1898 ). by Dom Boniface Wimmer, of which eventually joined the Bursfeld Union the... Boniface Wimmer, of which eventually joined the Bursfeld Union themselves from the earliest examples of constitutions! When the first and for some time the only monasteries of the Abbey from which few! Christ the king in November of 1987 foundations Originating from it Cisterisans, etc, though the was... Dependencies spread over many lands eleventh-century catalogue printed by Montfaucon ( Diarium Italicum, c. 1090 ; author of somewhat. Council it was intended partly to continue the community of Maria Rickenbach this was soon changed for that Ypres! I want to celebrate and reflect on with you congregation of Saint Bernard Abbey in Cullman, Alabama in..

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